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Food Dictionary

Abbreviations

  • Tbsp – tablespoon
  • Tsp – teaspoon
  • C – cup
  • Pt – pint
  • Qt – quart
  • Lb – pound
  • Oz – ounce
  • Gal – gallon

Measurements

  • 1 tbsp = 3 tbsp
  • 1 c = 16 tbsp
  • 1/2 c = 8 tbsp
  • 1/3 c = 5 tbsp + 1 tsp
  • 1/4 c = 4 tbsp
  • 1/8 c = 2 tbsp
  • 1 pt = 2 c
  • 1 qt = 2 pt
  • 1 qt = 4 c
  • 1 gal = 8 pt
  • 1 gal = 4 gt
  • 1 lb = 16 oz
  • 3/4 lb = 12 oz
  • 1/2 lb = 8 oz
  • 1/4 lb = 4 oz
  • 1 liquid c = 8 oz
  • 1 pt = 16 oz
  • 1 qt = 32 oz
  • dash, pinch = < 1/8 tsp
  • 1 lb butter = 2 c or 4 sticks
  • 1 stick butter = 1/2 c or 8 tbsp

Terms

  • bake – cook in an oven, covered or uncovered
  • baste – to moisten food or meat with a liquid while cooking to add flavor and to prevent drying
  • beat – to make a mixture smooth or to incorporate air into a mixture
  • blanch – to dip food in boiling water or steam for a sort time; to soften skin of fruits/vegetables or to treat fruits/vegetables before freezing to inhibit enzyme action that would deteriorate food in the freezer
  • blend – to mix two or more ingredients until thoroughly combined
  • boil – to cook food in a boiling liquid; in which bubbles break the surface of the liquid
  • braise – to cook meat or poultry slowly in a covered utensil with a small amount of liquid
  • bread – to cover food with fine crumbs
  • broil – to cook under direct heat or over coals
  • brown – to turn food’s surface brown through applied heat from frying, broiling, or baking
  • chop – to cut food into small, uniform pieces
  • core – to remove central portion of seeds or hard materials from fruits and vegetables
  • cream – to work one or more foods until soft and smooth with a spoon rubbing against the side of a bowl or by using an electric mixer
  • cube – to cut into small squares, usually about 1/2 inch
  • cut in – to distribute small pieces of solid fat evenly throughout dry ingredients using a pastry blender or two crossed table knives in a scissors-like motion
  • dice – to cut into small cubs, smaller than 1/2 inch
  • dilute – to add water to another liquid
  • dissolve – to mix a solid ingredient such as sugar with a liquid until they form a solution
  • dot – to place small pieces of an ingredient, such as butter, over a surface
  • drain – to separate a liquid from a food, using a strainer or a colander
  • fold – to combine two ingredients or mixtures by gently cutting down through a mixture around the bottom, back up to the surface, and across the top in an up-and-down circular motion that does not leave the mixture until well-blended
  • fricassee – to cook by braising when referring to fowl, veal or rabbit
  • fry – to cook in hot fat
  • garnish – to add another touch of food to a prepared food for decorating purposes
  • grate – to rub food through the cutting blades of a grater to make various sizes of small pieces
  • knead – to manipulate dough with the hands by pressing with the palms of the hand and folding until the dough becomes smooth and elastic
  • marinate – to let stand in a specified mixture for a length of time for flavor and/or tenderizing
  • mince – to cut food into very small pieces
  • mix – to combine two or more ingredients
  • pare – to cut off the thinnest layer of peel from fruit or vegetable
  • poach – to cook a food in a small amount of simmering liquid
  • roast – to cook by dry heat, uncovered, usually in the oven
  • saute – to cook uncovered in a small amount of fat in a pan
  • scald – to heat a liquid just to the simmering point
  • sear – to brown a meat surface quickly with high heat
  • shred – to teat or cut food into thin strips
  • sift – to force a dry ingredient through a fine sieve
  • steam – to cook over steam rising from boiling water
  • steep – to let stand in hot liquid below the boiling point to extract flavor and color
  • stir – to mix ingredients in a circular motion
  • sitr fry – to fry small pieces of food quickly in a small amount of hot oil in a work or skillet
  • toss – to fumble ingredients lightly
  • whip – to beat rapidly to incorporate air to increase volume and fluffiness

 

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